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小儿推拿按摩培训:儿童用药的特点和使用禁区!
来源:http://www.bbtndoctor.com添加时间:2019-11-04 16:11:37
  由于各种器官的成熟发展孩子的身体,孩子比成人更应该谨慎的过程中药物,不仅以帮助孩子早日恢复,但是也避免药物对孩子的负面影响程度。
  Due to the maturity of various organs and the development of children's body, children should be more cautious than adults in the process of drugs, not only to help children recover as soon as possible, but also to avoid the most negative impact of drugs on children.
  儿科用药特点
  Characteristics of pediatric medication
  1. 吸收药物较多:婴幼儿口服时胃酸较少,胃酶活性较低,胃排空慢,肠蠕动不规则,特殊转运能力弱。有些口服药物易受胃酸、胃酶和肠道ph值的影响,儿童较成人更易吸收。
  1. More absorbed drugs: infants take less gastric acid, lower gastric enzyme activity, slow gastric emptying, irregular intestinal peristalsis, weak special transport capacity. Some oral drugs are easily affected by gastric acid, gastric enzyme and intestinal pH value, which are more easily absorbed by children than adults.
  皮肤用药时,由于儿童的皮肤娇嫩,血管丰富,药物轻易通过皮肤吸收,皮肤破时吸收量较多。有用硼酸溶液湿敷治疗尿布皮炎,产生病儿中毒死亡的报告。故皮肤用药,儿童的吸收量也比成人多。
  Skin medication, because of the delicate skin of children, rich blood vessels, drugs easily absorbed through the skin, the amount of absorption when the skin is broken is more. The use of boric acid solution wet compress in the treatment of diaper dermatitis resulted in the death report of poisoning. Therefore, the absorption of skin drugs in children is more than that in adults.
  2. 血药浓度高:一方面,儿童,尤其是新生儿,细胞外液较多,会影响一些药物根据脂-水分配系数在体内的分布(如磺胺、青霉素、头孢菌素、呋尿等),从而增加药物在血液中的浓度。
  2. High blood drug concentration: on the one hand, children, especially newborns, have more extracellular fluid, which will affect the distribution of some drugs in the body according to the fat water partition coefficient (such as sulfanilamide, penicillin, cephalosporin, furosemide, etc.), so as to increase the concentration of drugs in the blood.
  另一方面,由于婴儿血清蛋白量不仅低于成人,而且与药物的结合力较弱,导致血液中游离药物浓度增加。各种不良反应容易发生。
  On the other hand, the amount of serum protein in infants is not only lower than that in adults, but also has weak binding force with drugs, resulting in the increase of free drug concentration in blood. All kinds of adverse reactions are easy to occur.
  3.代谢和排泄功能弱:药物的代谢和排泄取决于肝肾功能是否完整。婴儿的肝肾发育不完全,药物的清除和排泄缓慢。
山东小儿推拿按摩培训
  3. Weak metabolism and excretion: the metabolism and excretion of drugs depend on the integrity of liver and kidney functions. The development of liver and kidney is not complete, and the clearance and excretion of drugs are slow.
  新生儿如使用磺胺类药物可使血胆红质浓度增高,同时代谢能力降低,轻易出现核黄疸病。
  If the neonate uses sulfonamide drugs, the concentration of blood bilirubin will be increased, and the metabolic capacity will be reduced, so it is easy to develop nuclear jaundice.
  如新生儿肝功能再不健全,服用氯霉素后可引起“灰色婴儿综合征”。因此,儿童不允许服用氯霉素和磺胺类药物。
  If the liver function of the newborn is no longer sound, taking chloramphenicol can cause "gray infant syndrome". Therefore, children are not allowed to take chloramphenicol and sulfanilamide drugs.
  10个儿童禁区
  10 forbidden areas for children
  1. 解热镇痛药物:新生儿使用阿司匹林或含阿司匹林的制剂可能导致雷氏综合征(一种常见的急性脑疾病,死亡率高达50%)。阿司匹林还会损害儿童的听觉神经。
  1. Antipyretic and analgesic drugs: the use of aspirin or aspirin containing preparations in newborns may lead to Reynold's syndrome (a common acute brain disease with a mortality rate of up to 50%). Aspirin can also damage children's auditory nerves.
  双氯芬酸钠是感冒的主要成分之一,易引起儿童血尿,不宜作为儿童治疗感冒的常用药物。三岁以下儿童禁止入内。双氯芬酸钠缓释片因剂量大(每片75mg),不宜用于儿童和青少年。
  Diclofenac sodium is one of the main components of common cold, which is easy to cause hematuria in children. It is not suitable to be used as a common drug for children to treat common cold. Children under the age of three are forbidden to enter. Diclofenac sodium sustained-release tablets are not suitable for children and adolescents because of the large dosage (75mg per tablet).
  又如含有吡唑酮的复方氨飞剂、安乃金、去痛片、松力通片等,其解热镇痛作用肯定,但儿童不宜连续使用,很轻易引起再生障碍性贫血和紫癜。
  Another example is the compound amiodarone containing pyrazolone, analgin, Qutong tablet, songlitong tablet, etc., whose antipyretic and analgesic effects are certain, but it is not suitable for children to use continuously, which easily causes aplastic anemia and purpura.
  对乙酰氨基酚也是应用更广泛的解热镇痛药,其疗效好,口服吸收迅速、完整,但应注意用量不宜过大。
  Acetaminophen is also the most widely used antipyretic and analgesic drug, which has good curative effect, rapid and complete oral absorption, but the dosage should not be too large.
  2. 止泻药:复方二苯氧诺(复方苯哌啶醇),适用于急慢性功能性腹泻和慢性肠炎的治疗。每片含2.5mg盐酸双酚诺和0.025mg硫酸阿托品,其中双酚诺酯对肠道的作用如同吗啡,可直接作用于肠道平滑肌。
  2. Antidiarrheal: compound diphenoxyl (compound piperidinol), which is suitable for the treatment of acute and chronic functional diarrhea and chronic enteritis. Each tablet contains 2.5mg bisphenol hydrochloride and 0.025mg atropine sulfate. Bisphenol ester has the same effect on intestinal smooth muscle as morphine.
  由于连续报道引起的中毒甚至死亡儿童的这种药物在国内外的应用(婴儿的死亡病例主要是小于2岁),因为没有统一的标准剂量的药物在儿童到目前为止,2岁以下的儿童应禁止,和孩子在2岁应该小心使用(严格控制剂量)。
  Due to the continuous reports of poisoning and even death of children, the use of this drug at home and abroad (infant death cases are mainly less than 2 years old), because there is no uniform standard dose of drugs in children so far, children under 2 years old should be banned, and children should be careful when they are 2 years old (strictly control the dose).
  洛哌丁胺(imodium)适用于治疗各种病因引起的急、慢性腹泻。但它的行动比difenoxol酯和快速,用于儿童容易引起药物不良反应,如神经系统的影响,有报导说,新生儿的药物死亡,所以国内外幼儿是有限的使用,如中国很容易停止使用手册规定:5岁以下儿童禁止。
  Droperidine (imodium) is suitable for the treatment of acute and chronic diarrhea caused by various causes. But its action is faster than difenoxol ester, and it is easy to cause adverse drug reactions in children, such as the influence of central nervous system. It is reported that the drug death of newborns, so domestic and foreign children are limited in use. For example, China is easy to stop using the manual, which stipulates that children under the age of 5 are prohibited.
  药用炭,可吸附多种有毒、无毒的刺激物,引起腹泻和腹部不适,减少对肠壁的刺激,降低肠道蠕动,从而起到腹泻的作用。但由于该药具有较强的非选择性吸附作用,对胃蛋白酶、胰蛋白酶等消化酶的生长活性有影响,长期使用会引起儿童营养不良,禁止3岁以下儿童长期使用。
  Medicinal charcoal can absorb a variety of toxic and non-toxic irritants, cause diarrhea and abdominal discomfort, reduce the stimulation of intestinal wall, reduce intestinal peristalsis, and play the role of diarrhea. However, due to its strong non selective adsorption, it has an impact on the growth activity of pepsin, trypsin and other digestive enzymes. Long-term use of the drug will cause malnutrition in children, and it is forbidden to use it for children under 3 years old for a long time.
  3.驱虫药:肠道寄生虫种类繁多,如蛔虫、蛲虫等。驱虫药有很多种,有的对多种寄生虫有效,有的只对几种寄生虫有效。在用药之前,有必要了解体内是否有寄生虫以及寄生虫的种类。
  3. Anthelmintics: there are many kinds of intestinal parasites, such as Ascaris, pinworms, etc. There are many kinds of anthelmintics, some are effective for many kinds of parasites, some are only effective for several kinds of parasites. Before medication, it is necessary to know whether there are parasites in the body and the types of parasites.
  常用的除虫药物有:阿苯达唑(肠球菌药)、哌嗪(蛔虫药)、噻嗪(蛔虫药)、左阿米唑、甲苯咪唑、楝皮、ume、quiscus等。
  The commonly used insecticides are albendazole (Enterococcus), piperazine (Ascaris), thiazine (Ascaris), left amizole, mebendazole, neem bark, ume, quiscus, etc.
  这些药物有一定的毒性和副作用,如恶唑类和蛔虫类,虽然毒性较低,但如果经常或过量服用,会引起头晕、头痛、呕吐和肝损伤。因此,药品说明书规定2岁以下儿童不得使用。楝皮苦寒胃,过量也会引起中毒死亡,5岁以下儿童禁用。
  These drugs have certain toxicity and side effects, such as oxazole and Ascaris. Although the toxicity is low, if they are taken frequently or excessively, they will cause dizziness, headache, vomiting and liver damage. Therefore, the drug manual stipulates that children under 2 years old shall not use it. Melia bark bitter cold stomach, excessive can also cause poisoning death, 5 years old children are forbidden.
  4. 抗过敏药物:6岁以下儿童不宜使用西替利嗪。6个月以下的婴儿禁用盐酸苯海拉明、盐酸特苯海拉明和盐酸双苯尼多。
  4. Antiallergic drugs: cetirizine should not be used in children under 6 years old. Diphenhydramine hydrochloride, terdiphenhydramine hydrochloride and diphenidol hydrochloride are forbidden for infants under 6 months.
  5. 抗酸:持续使用西咪替丁、雷尼替丁、法莫替丁等H2受体拮抗剂对儿童肝脏、肾功能、造血系统、内分泌系统有一定损害,16岁以下儿童不宜使用。
  5. Anti acid: continuous use of cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine and other H2 receptor antagonists has certain damage to children's liver, renal function, hematopoietic system and endocrine system, which is not suitable for children under 16 years old.
  四环素类药物:四环素类药物可引起牙釉质发育不良、牙齿着色变黄、骨生长受阻,8岁以下儿童不宜使用。
  Tetracycline drugs: tetracycline drugs can cause enamel dysplasia, yellow tooth coloring, bone growth retardation, not suitable for children under 8 years old.
  四环素类药物有:四环素、土霉素、多西环素(多西环素)、二甲胺四环素(甲霉素)、胍四环素、二甲胺四环素、甲环素等。
  Tetracycline drugs include: tetracycline, oxytetracycline, doxycycline (doxycycline), dimethylaminotetracycline (methylmycin), guanidine tetracycline, dimethylaminotetracycline, methylcycline, etc.
  7. 喹诺酮类药物:这些药物会对幼犬和其他哺乳动物的骨骼和关节造成损害,特别是对负重的骨骼,所以18岁以下的儿童不应该使用它们。
  7. Quinolones: these drugs will cause damage to the bones and joints of puppies and other mammals, especially the bones bearing weight, so children under the age of 18 should not use them.
  这些药物有很多,常用的有诺氟沙星、环丙沙星、氧氟沙星、左氧氟沙星等。
  There are many of these drugs, including norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and levofloxacin.
  8. 其他抗感染药物:磺胺、呋喃妥因、呋喃唑酮、氯霉素、新霉素可引起新生儿溶血、新生儿灰质综合征、高胆红素血症,禁止新生儿使用。
  8. Other anti infective drugs: sulfanilamide, furantoin, furazolidone, chloramphenicol and neomycin can cause hemolysis, neonatal gray matter syndrome and hyperbilirubinemia of the newborn, which are forbidden to use.
  根据药物说明书:头孢克肟不能用于6个月以下的婴儿;替硝唑注射液,12岁以下儿童禁用;3岁以下儿童不宜注射奥硝唑。
  According to the drug instructions: cefixime can not be used for infants under 6 months; tinidazole injection is forbidden for children under 12 years old; it is not suitable for children under 3 years old to be injected with Ornidazole.
  9. 激素类药物:这类药物会掩盖炎症症状,但也会引起内分泌功能紊乱,一般应避免使用肾上腺皮质激素,如可的松、强的松(强的松)、地塞米松等。
  9. Hormone drugs: these drugs will cover up inflammatory symptoms, but also cause endocrine disorders. Generally, the use of adrenocortical hormones should be avoided, such as cortisone, prednisone (prednisone), dexamethasone, etc.
  以上是山东小儿推拿按摩培训为大家介绍的相关内容,想要了解更多内容,欢迎访问网站:http://www.bbtndoctor.com
  These are the relevant contents introduced by Shandong children massage training center. If you want to learn more, please visit the website: http://www.bbtndoctor.com

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