来源:http://www.bbtndoctor.com添加时间:2019-11-04 16:11:37
  Due to the maturity of various organs and the development of children's body, children should be more cautious than adults in the process of drugs, not only to help children recover as soon as possible, but also to avoid the most negative impact of drugs on children.
  Characteristics of pediatric medication
  1. 吸收药物较多:婴幼儿口服时胃酸较少,胃酶活性较低,胃排空慢,肠蠕动不规则,特殊转运能力弱。有些口服药物易受胃酸、胃酶和肠道ph值的影响,儿童较成人更易吸收。
  1. More absorbed drugs: infants take less gastric acid, lower gastric enzyme activity, slow gastric emptying, irregular intestinal peristalsis, weak special transport capacity. Some oral drugs are easily affected by gastric acid, gastric enzyme and intestinal pH value, which are more easily absorbed by children than adults.
  Skin medication, because of the delicate skin of children, rich blood vessels, drugs easily absorbed through the skin, the amount of absorption when the skin is broken is more. The use of boric acid solution wet compress in the treatment of diaper dermatitis resulted in the death report of poisoning. Therefore, the absorption of skin drugs in children is more than that in adults.
  2. 血药浓度高:一方面,儿童,尤其是新生儿,细胞外液较多,会影响一些药物根据脂-水分配系数在体内的分布(如磺胺、青霉素、头孢菌素、呋尿等),从而增加药物在血液中的浓度。
  2. High blood drug concentration: on the one hand, children, especially newborns, have more extracellular fluid, which will affect the distribution of some drugs in the body according to the fat water partition coefficient (such as sulfanilamide, penicillin, cephalosporin, furosemide, etc.), so as to increase the concentration of drugs in the blood.
  On the other hand, the amount of serum protein in infants is not only lower than that in adults, but also has weak binding force with drugs, resulting in the increase of free drug concentration in blood. All kinds of adverse reactions are easy to occur.
  3. Weak metabolism and excretion: the metabolism and excretion of drugs depend on the integrity of liver and kidney functions. The development of liver and kidney is not complete, and the clearance and excretion of drugs are slow.
  If the neonate uses sulfonamide drugs, the concentration of blood bilirubin will be increased, and the metabolic capacity will be reduced, so it is easy to develop nuclear jaundice.
  If the liver function of the newborn is no longer sound, taking chloramphenicol can cause "gray infant syndrome". Therefore, children are not allowed to take chloramphenicol and sulfanilamide drugs.
  10 forbidden areas for children
  1. 解热镇痛药物:新生儿使用阿司匹林或含阿司匹林的制剂可能导致雷氏综合征(一种常见的急性脑疾病,死亡率高达50%)。阿司匹林还会损害儿童的听觉神经。
  1. Antipyretic and analgesic drugs: the use of aspirin or aspirin containing preparations in newborns may lead to Reynold's syndrome (a common acute brain disease with a mortality rate of up to 50%). Aspirin can also damage children's auditory nerves.
  Diclofenac sodium is one of the main components of common cold, which is easy to cause hematuria in children. It is not suitable to be used as a common drug for children to treat common cold. Children under the age of three are forbidden to enter. Diclofenac sodium sustained-release tablets are not suitable for children and adolescents because of the large dosage (75mg per tablet).
  Another example is the compound amiodarone containing pyrazolone, analgin, Qutong tablet, songlitong tablet, etc., whose antipyretic and analgesic effects are certain, but it is not suitable for children to use continuously, which easily causes aplastic anemia and purpura.
  Acetaminophen is also the most widely used antipyretic and analgesic drug, which has good curative effect, rapid and complete oral absorption, but the dosage should not be too large.
  2. 止泻药:复方二苯氧诺(复方苯哌啶醇),适用于急慢性功能性腹泻和慢性肠炎的治疗。每片含2.5mg盐酸双酚诺和0.025mg硫酸阿托品,其中双酚诺酯对肠道的作用如同吗啡,可直接作用于肠道平滑肌。
  2. Antidiarrheal: compound diphenoxyl (compound piperidinol), which is suitable for the treatment of acute and chronic functional diarrhea and chronic enteritis. Each tablet contains 2.5mg bisphenol hydrochloride and 0.025mg atropine sulfate. Bisphenol ester has the same effect on intestinal smooth muscle as morphine.
  Due to the continuous reports of poisoning and even death of children, the use of this drug at home and abroad (infant death cases are mainly less than 2 years old), because there is no uniform standard dose of drugs in children so far, children under 2 years old should be banned, and children should be careful when they are 2 years old (strictly control the dose).
  Droperidine (imodium) is suitable for the treatment of acute and chronic diarrhea caused by various causes. But its action is faster than difenoxol ester, and it is easy to cause adverse drug reactions in children, such as the influence of central nervous system. It is reported that the drug death of newborns, so domestic and foreign children are limited in use. For example, China is easy to stop using the manual, which stipulates that children under the age of 5 are prohibited.
  Medicinal charcoal can absorb a variety of toxic and non-toxic irritants, cause diarrhea and abdominal discomfort, reduce the stimulation of intestinal wall, reduce intestinal peristalsis, and play the role of diarrhea. However, due to its strong non selective adsorption, it has an impact on the growth activity of pepsin, trypsin and other digestive enzymes. Long-term use of the drug will cause malnutrition in children, and it is forbidden to use it for children under 3 years old for a long time.
  3. Anthelmintics: there are many kinds of intestinal parasites, such as Ascaris, pinworms, etc. There are many kinds of anthelmintics, some are effective for many kinds of parasites, some are only effective for several kinds of parasites. Before medication, it is necessary to know whether there are parasites in the body and the types of parasites.
  The commonly used insecticides are albendazole (Enterococcus), piperazine (Ascaris), thiazine (Ascaris), left amizole, mebendazole, neem bark, ume, quiscus, etc.
  These drugs have certain toxicity and side effects, such as oxazole and Ascaris. Although the toxicity is low, if they are taken frequently or excessively, they will cause dizziness, headache, vomiting and liver damage. Therefore, the drug manual stipulates that children under 2 years old shall not use it. Melia bark bitter cold stomach, excessive can also cause poisoning death, 5 years old children are forbidden.
  4. 抗过敏药物:6岁以下儿童不宜使用西替利嗪。6个月以下的婴儿禁用盐酸苯海拉明、盐酸特苯海拉明和盐酸双苯尼多。
  4. Antiallergic drugs: cetirizine should not be used in children under 6 years old. Diphenhydramine hydrochloride, terdiphenhydramine hydrochloride and diphenidol hydrochloride are forbidden for infants under 6 months.
  5. 抗酸:持续使用西咪替丁、雷尼替丁、法莫替丁等H2受体拮抗剂对儿童肝脏、肾功能、造血系统、内分泌系统有一定损害,16岁以下儿童不宜使用。
  5. Anti acid: continuous use of cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine and other H2 receptor antagonists has certain damage to children's liver, renal function, hematopoietic system and endocrine system, which is not suitable for children under 16 years old.
  Tetracycline drugs: tetracycline drugs can cause enamel dysplasia, yellow tooth coloring, bone growth retardation, not suitable for children under 8 years old.
  Tetracycline drugs include: tetracycline, oxytetracycline, doxycycline (doxycycline), dimethylaminotetracycline (methylmycin), guanidine tetracycline, dimethylaminotetracycline, methylcycline, etc.
  7. 喹诺酮类药物:这些药物会对幼犬和其他哺乳动物的骨骼和关节造成损害,特别是对负重的骨骼,所以18岁以下的儿童不应该使用它们。
  7. Quinolones: these drugs will cause damage to the bones and joints of puppies and other mammals, especially the bones bearing weight, so children under the age of 18 should not use them.
  There are many of these drugs, including norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and levofloxacin.
  8. 其他抗感染药物:磺胺、呋喃妥因、呋喃唑酮、氯霉素、新霉素可引起新生儿溶血、新生儿灰质综合征、高胆红素血症,禁止新生儿使用。
  8. Other anti infective drugs: sulfanilamide, furantoin, furazolidone, chloramphenicol and neomycin can cause hemolysis, neonatal gray matter syndrome and hyperbilirubinemia of the newborn, which are forbidden to use.
  According to the drug instructions: cefixime can not be used for infants under 6 months; tinidazole injection is forbidden for children under 12 years old; it is not suitable for children under 3 years old to be injected with Ornidazole.
  9. 激素类药物:这类药物会掩盖炎症症状,但也会引起内分泌功能紊乱,一般应避免使用肾上腺皮质激素,如可的松、强的松(强的松)、地塞米松等。
  9. Hormone drugs: these drugs will cover up inflammatory symptoms, but also cause endocrine disorders. Generally, the use of adrenocortical hormones should be avoided, such as cortisone, prednisone (prednisone), dexamethasone, etc.
  These are the relevant contents introduced by Shandong children massage training center. If you want to learn more, please visit the website: http://www.bbtndoctor.com